Abatement of the personal allowance
Not all taxpayers are able to benefit from the personal allowance – once income exceeds £100,000 the allowance is gradually reduced until it is eliminated in full. However, there are steps which can be taken to reduce income and preserve entitlement to the personal allowance.
The personal allowance is set at £11,850 for 2018/19, rising to £12,500 for 2019/20.
When is it abated?
Once an individual’s ‘adjusted net income’ exceeds £100,000, their personal allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 by which ‘adjusted net income’ exceeds £100,000.
The measure of income for these purposes is ‘adjusted net income’. This is an individual’s total taxable income before personal allowances and after deducting certain reliefs, such as:
- relief for trading losses;
- donations to charity through the Gift Aid scheme (deduct the grossed-up amount of the donation); and
- pension contributions (deduct the gross amount).
Polly has taxable income for 2018/19 of £120,000. She makes pension contributions paid gross of £5,000.
Polly’s adjusted net income for £2018/19 is £115,000 (£1250,000 – £5,000).
As her income is more than £100,000, her personal allowance is reduced. The personal allowance for the year of £11,850 is reduced by £1 for every £2 by which her income exceeds £100,000.
The reduction in her personal allowance is therefore £7,500 (1/2(£115,000 – £100,000).
Her personal allowance for 2019/20 is therefore £4,350.
Assuming her income remains the same for 2019/20 and she continues to make gross pension contributions of £5,000, she will receive a personal allowance of £5,000 for 2019/20.
When is the personal allowance lost?
With a personal allowance of £11,850 for 2018/19, individuals with income in excess of £123,700 do not receive a personal allowance for that year. For 2019/20, the personal allowance is £12,500, and the personal allowance is lost once adjusted net income exceeds £125,000.
Beware 60% tax in the abatement zone
Where adjusted net income falls within the zone in which the personal allowance is reducing – from £100,000 to £100,000 plus twice the personal allowance – the marginal rate of tax is 60%. This is the combined effect of the application of the higher rate of tax and the reduction in the personal allowance.
Reduce the 60% band and preserve the allowance
To reduce the income falling in the abatement zone (taxed at a marginal rate of 60%) and to preserve as much as the personal allowance as possible, it is necessary to reduce adjusted net income.
There are various ways in which this can be achieved.
The first point to consider is the timing of income – can income be deferred to the next tax year, or, if income for the current tax year is less than £100,000 but is expected to be above £100,000 in the following year, can income be brought forward to the current tax year. In a family company scenario, it may be possible to achieve this by adjusting the timing of dividends and bonuses.
Consideration could also be given to putting income earning assets into the name of a spouse or civil partner to reduce income and preserve the allowance.
Adjusted net income is income after pension contributions. Making pension contributions is tax effective, both in terms of benefitting from the relief available and reducing net income to preserve personal allowances.
Alternatively, a person can make charitable donations under gift aid to reduce their adjusted net income. Although they will lose the benefit of their income, the cost will be offset slightly by the preserved personal allowance, and their chosen charity will be benefit from the donation plus the associated gift aid.